12AV6 Vacuum Tube Radio
The 12AV6 was commonly used as a detector and first audio amp in five tube table radios. The triode section is high gain. The 1N34A diode can be left out and the two plate electrodes (pins 5,6) will act as a detector. If pins 5,, 6, and the 1N34 are left out this will act as a grid leak detector with more noise. As shown in the video this was connected to a solid state audio amplifier based on an Lm386 which will be covered on a separate page. The antenna wire I used was 20-25 feet of copper wire hung out a window to a metal pole, the ground was connected to some conduit.
The coil is hand made and one can experiment with the number of windings. This is very selective and pulled in several local stations and some of the short wave bands as well. L1 is based on a 1930s design and the purpose here is to teach some basic radio design. Note the following: Mystery Crystal Radio 1932
Pins 3 and 4 on the tube are the filament and require 12.6 volts AC or DC. The power supply for the plate can be 150 to 170 volts. (This is a seven pin vacuum tube.) The circuit above uses two 120 to 12.6 volt step down transformers. By connecting the two transformers "back to back" this serves to isolate the project from the power line to prevent electric shock or having a "HOT" ground.
In electronics, a vacuum tube, electron tube or thermionic valve is a device that relies on the flow of electric current through a vacuum. Vacuum tubes rely on thermionic emission of electrons from a hot filament or indirectly heated cathode that travel through a vacuum toward the anode (plate) that's held at a high positive voltage. Additional electrodes interposed between the cathode and anode can alter the current, giving the tube the ability to amplify and switch. In the case of the 12AV6 it has only a control grid in addition to the plate and cathode.
In most applications today vacuum tubes have been replaced by solid-state devices such as transistors and other semiconductor devices. They are cheaper, more energy efficient, and last longer. I believe tubes are better as radio receivers myself due to high input impedance and they are still highly sought after in high fidelity audio amplifiers. For more on general vacuum tubes see Wikipedia
The next groups of links below go to specific electronic/electrical devices on how to use and test them.
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